How might the Dover area have looked 87 million years ago? Introduction Dover is a coastal town and major port in the southeast corner of Kent, and home to over 28, people. The town is well known as a crossing point between England and Calais in France, a journey across the English Channel of 21 miles. Maritime evidence dating from c. Immediately east of the town and continuing 2 miles towards St Margaret’s Bay are the famous White Cliffs of Dover, an exposure of Middle and Upper Chalk dating from the Late Cretaceous epoch, million years ago. At this time the Dover area lay beneath a relatively shallow sea, over a hundred miles from the nearest land. Fossils reveal the prehistoric sea was home to a variety of organisms, in particular sediment burrowing echinoids, bivalves, sponges and other marine organisms including crustaceans and sharks.
West Antarctic Ice Sheet
I have reproduced the article here so that I can respond to it in context. First of all, thank you for the link to it. Before I begin, I want to mention that the dating and the article are done with the presupposition of both long ages and not only uniformitarianism but gradualism. Understanding that I do not accept these presuppositions and will be looking at the evidence presented from the standpoint of recent creation and catastrophic interruptions in history, I will approach the article from a “devil’s advocate” point of view as far as evolutionists are concerned.
The quoted article is in italics. Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, highest and driest continent on Earth.
Although radiometric dating of ice cores has been difficult, Uranium has been used to date the Dome C ice core from Antarctica. Dust is present in ice cores, and it contains Uranium.
Dating by annual layer counting An ice sheet consists of layers strata of snow and ice, almost like a giant sandwich. In the inner part of the ice sheet where more snow accumulates than melts and evaporates the so-called accumulation zone , a new layer of snow is deposited on top of the previous layer of snow every year. The buried snow layers get compressed as more snow falls on top read more about the transformation of snow to ice here. The layers are slowly transformed into ice and they are becoming thinner and older as they move downwards through the ice sheet and eventually melt or break off as icebergs at the ice sheet’s margins.
The mapping and study of the layering in the ice is called stratigraphy. A vertical profile of the ice sheet. Note that in reality, the ice sheet is about km wide and 3 km thick. The green, horizontal lines represent annual layers that are becoming thinner and older at increasing depth. The arrows show the typical flow pattern of the ice: The stratification of the ice can be observed in many ways.
The most direct way is to dig a pit in the snow on top of the ice sheet. A double pit at a location close to the NEEM deep drill site.
Ice Age Human Footprints in Canada Reveal a Walk on the Beach Taken 13,000 Years Ago
Ice-sheet dynamics Sampling the surface of Taku Glacier in Alaska. There is increasingly dense firn between surface snow and blue glacier ice. An ice core is a vertical column through a glacier, sampling the layers that formed through an annual cycle of snowfall and melt. At Summit Camp in Greenland, the depth is 77 m and the ice is years old; at Dome C in Antarctica the depth is 95 m and the age years.
The bubbles disappear and the ice becomes more transparent. Ice is lost at the edges of the glacier to icebergs , or to summer melting, and the overall shape of the glacier does not change much with time.
Ice cream Food historians tell us the history of ice cream begins with ancient flavored ices. The Chinese are generally credited for creating the first ice creams, possibly as early as BC.
Free adult sex mobile chat no Cerita bisex In part, they measure the age of rocks and other natural materials by dating techniques. They can date rocks by gauging the amount of decay of radioactive elements. What has so far been discovered with ice core research? In addition, other dating methods using radioactive isotopes and known volcanic horizons can give a precise means of dating the layers. The ideal place to drill an ice core is an ice cap or glacier which has very little sideways movement of the ice over time.
By counting down the layers, it is often possible to calculate the number of years represented in a particular ice core. The original investigators made the effort to obtain the data and assure their quality. At the Bern laboratory, four to six samples of approximately 8 grams from each depth level 0.
Little Ice Age
Preheat oven to degrees F. Grease two 9-inch cake pans and line the bottoms with parchment paper. Grease the parchment, then dust the pans with flour, tapping out any excess; set aside. In a 4-cup liquid measuring cup or medium bowl, whisk together the melted butter, buttermilk, vegetable oil, vanilla extract, and egg yolks. Place the egg whites in the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with a whisk attachment.
Beat the egg whites at medium-high speed until foamy, about 30 seconds.
Introduction Dover is a coastal town and major port in the southeast corner of Kent, and home to over 28, people. The town is well known as a crossing point between England and Calais in France, a journey across the English Channel of 21 miles.
Patrick 1 Comment The early beliefs of Northern Europe encompass a rich and sinister mythological tradition that includes not only giants, but an entire host of magical and mystical creatures. The ancient Norse divided the peoples of the world into three distinct categories: When the Vikings entered a region for the first time, they took their swords and battle axes in hand and tested them out on anyone they encountered, to determine whether they could be killed and thus were human, or whether they were invincible, which meant they were giants or members of one of the other many magical races, and therefore immortal.
Examples of the magical races include orcs, trolls, elves, half gods, and, of course, giants. All of these were very similar to the creatures that the famous author J. In attempting to understand the Norse mythology, we need to understand its origins. According to late nineteenth and early twentieth century writer Donald A. Mackenzie, Celtic and Teutonic Norse mythology demonstrate a definite commonality.
Frequently Asked Questions on Arctic sea ice
General considerations Distinctions between relative-age and absolute-age measurements Local relationships on a single outcrop or archaeological site can often be interpreted to deduce the sequence in which the materials were assembled. This then can be used to deduce the sequence of events and processes that took place or the history of that brief period of time as recorded in the rocks or soil.
For example, the presence of recycled bricks at an archaeological site indicates the sequence in which the structures were built. Similarly, in geology, if distinctive granitic pebbles can be found in the sediment beside a similar granitic body, it can be inferred that the granite, after cooling, had been uplifted and eroded and therefore was not injected into the adjacent rock sequence. Although with clever detective work many complex time sequences or relative ages can be deduced, the ability to show that objects at two separated sites were formed at the same time requires additional information.
A coin, vessel, or other common artifact could link two archaeological sites, but the possibility of recycling would have to be considered.
The Minoan eruption of Thera, also referred to as the Thera eruption, Santorini eruption, or Late Bronze Age eruption, was a major catastrophic volcanic eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6 or 7 and a dense-rock equivalent (DRE) of 60 km 3 (14 cu mi), Dated to the mid-second millennium BCE, the eruption was one of the largest volcanic events on Earth in recorded history.
Donau There are four named major glaciations in North America. The earliest, the Nebraskan , is found on the plains of the central United States. The Kansan overlies it and extends slightly farther southwest into Kansas. The Illinoian , as the name implies, terminates primarily in Illinois. This last advance removed most evidence of earlier glaciations in these regions. The actual positions of the southern edges of these ice sheets varied considerably from glacial to glacial.
The northern extent of the ice is poorly known at best. Similar sequences are found from Scandinavian ice sheets and from ice in the Swiss and Austrian Alps. Glacial remnants Landforms There have certainly been previous periods of geologic time in which glaciers were extensive during the late Precambrian and the Permian Period , for example , but the Quaternary has left a distinctive imprint on modern landscapes and surface environments.
The most distinguishing characteristics of the Quaternary in middle and high latitudes are glacial sediments and evidence of glacial erosion. Glacial erosion is the predominant feature of high mountains such as the Alps , Himalayas , Andes , and Rockies. Glacial erosion has sculpted deep alpine valleys, and it has left sharp erosional remnants such as the Matterhorn in Europe. Valley glaciers near the ocean sculpted deep fjords in Norway , Greenland , northern Canada, Alaska , Chile , and Antarctica.
The World’s Oldest Ice
Thin section of an ice core from Antarctica. Behind the day-glo radar maps and adorably abstract sun and cloud icons are vast amounts of data feeding atmospheric models that inform not only how we dress for the day, but how we prepare for droughts and superstorms. The climate archive gets wilder and dirtier the deeper you go.
Ice cores, boreholes, sediments, pollens, tree rings, corals, and other samples of the geologic field become documents. Weather data flow through neural nets and populate massive data centers, but they also reside in refrigerators and polystyrene tubes. And the climate archive like most archives gets wilder and dirtier the deeper you go.
London’s population of 18th century dragons was tragically wiped out by a mini ice age – and a deadly volcanic eruption. But now, thanks to new technology, the ‘descendants’ of the.
From this was recovered the deepest ice core record to date. Comparative data between these two deep cores have allowed scientists to develop an ice core-derived paleoenvironmental record dating back greater than , years BP BP means “before present” and “BP” is defined as In other words, the ice has been confirmed to be as old as the collective measurements indicate.
These data alone destroy the core doctrine of the theory of Young Earth Creationism that the Earth is only about 6, years old. In addition to the actual age of the ice at any given depth in the core, scientists can also determine the mean temperature of the Earth’s past climate for different times and ages by measuring the ratio of the isotopes of oxygen O16 and O18 gas present in the CO2. Secular critics of Young Earth Creationism cite the very existence of the Greenland Ice Sheet and the paleoenvironmental record it contains as well as the data found in ice cores from the glaciers on Kilimanjaro in Africa and Huascaran in Peru as absolute proof that the Earth is older than 6, years and that Noah’s flood did not occur, since there are no indications of a flood in the ice core layers.
On the first point they are absolutely correct. On the second point, we disagree that the lack of direct evidence in the ice proves that a global flood did not take place at all. There is certainly much “indirect” evidence to consider. The ice core records, whether in Greenland or mountain top glaciers around the globe, are replete with “melt” indicators.
Food historians confirm the European practice of topping baked goods most notably pie and cake with rich cream sauce, whipped dates to Renaissance times. Historic cookbooks offer several examples; none of which are titled “a la mode. While the phrase is French, we find no supporting print evidence the combination of ice cream topped dessert originated in that country.
Barry Popik, etymolotgist extrodinaire, traces the phrase to the late s. Our survey of historic American newspapers confirms the phrase became popular in the early 20th century. It has some currency in English in the eighteenth century and nineteeth centuries in the compressed form alamode beef.
To demonstrate the methods used in dating ice-cores I will use the Vostok ice-core as an example because I found plenty of literature on it and because it is an Antarctic ice-core which was what the original post was about.
Share shares ‘There are findings in our study that could suggest that stopping smoking might allow the brain’s cortex to recover some of its thickness, though we need further studies conducted with repeat measures to test that idea. Heavy ex-smokers in the study who had given up smoking for more than 25 years still had a thinner cortex. Although the cortex grows thinner with normal ageing, the study found that smoking appears to accelerate the thinning process. A thinner brain cortex is associated with adult cognitive decline.
The cortex is the outer layer which covers two thirds of the brain’s mass. The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter.