Hellenistic Monarchs

Hellenistic Monarchs

More than four centuries later, the city of Heracleion was noted by the ancient geographer Strabo to have been located to the east of Canopus at the mouth of the Canopic branch of the Nile, establishing another reference to its existence. The ancient city of Canopus has been mentioned many times in Greek mythology and Egyptian decrees, and by Greek historians. Utilizing sophisticated technical equipment Goddio and his team were able to locate, map, and excavate parts of Canopus and Thonis-Heracleion and confirm that the region had indeed once been an important center of trade and site of religious pilgrimage. The excavation has also helped scholars understand the Mysteries of Osiris, an annual festival that commemorated one of Egypt’s most important myths—the murder and resurrection of the god Osiris. A team of underwater archaeologists, led by Goddio, continues to tirelessly explore the submerged land off the Mediterranean coast. This ambitious year-long project covers a vast area the size of Paris and brings to light findings of antiquities of considerable importance, transforming our understanding of the extensive exchange of goods and ideas between Egypt and its Mediterranean neighbors. The archaeological work of Franck Goddio has been supported since by the Hilti Foundation. After this, Osiris became the Lord of the Afterlife. Horus successfully fought against Seth, avenging Osiris and receiving Egypt as his heritage.

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Mark published on 02 September Egypt is a country in North Africa, on the Mediterranean Sea, and is home to one of the oldest civilizations on earth. Memphis was the first capital of Egypt and a famous religious and trade centre; its high status is attested to by the Greeks alluding to the entire country by that name.

To the Egyptians themselves, their country was simply known as Kemet which means ‘Black Land’ so named for the rich, dark soil along the Nile River where the first settlements began. Later, the country was known as Misr which means ‘country’, a name still in use by Egyptians for their nation in the present day. Egypt thrived for thousands of years from c.

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Historical sites and landmarks[ edit ] Egypt — Obelisk, Alexandria. Roman Amphitheater Roman Pompey’s Pillar Due to the constant presence of war in Alexandria in ancient times, very little of the ancient city has survived into the present day. Much of the royal and civic quarters sank beneath the harbour due to earthquake subsidence in AD , and the rest has been built over in modern times. Kom El Shoqafa ” Pompey’s Pillar “, a Roman triumphal column , is one of the best-known ancient monuments still standing in Alexandria today.

It is located on Alexandria’s ancient acropolis —a modest hill located adjacent to the city’s Arab cemetery —and was originally part of a temple colonnade. Its volume is cubic meters 4, cubic feet and weight approximately tons. The Romans had cranes but they were not strong enough to lift something this heavy. Roger Hopkins and Mark Lehrner conducted several obelisk erecting experiments including a successful attempt to erect a ton obelisk in This followed two experiments to erect smaller obelisks and two failed attempts to erect a ton obelisk.

Beneath the acropolis itself are the subterranean remains of the Serapeum, where the mysteries of the god Serapis were enacted, and whose carved wall niches are believed to have provided overflow storage space for the ancient Library. In more recent years, many ancient artifacts have been discovered from the surrounding sea, mostly pieces of old pottery.

Alexandria’s catacombs , known as Kom El Shoqafa , are a short distance southwest of the pillar, consist of a multi-level labyrinth, reached via a large spiral staircase , and featuring dozens of chambers adorned with sculpted pillars, statues, and other syncretic Romano-Egyptian religious symbols , burial niches, and sarcophagi , as well as a large Roman-style banquet room, where memorial meals were conducted by relatives of the deceased.

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Biblical Egypt The Book of Genesis and Book of Exodus describe a period of Hebrew servitude in ancient Egypt, during decades of sojourn in Egypt, the escape of well over a million Israelites from the Delta , and the three-month journey through the wilderness to Sinai. A reasonably Bible-friendly interpretation is that they were a federation of Habiru tribes of the hill-country around the Jordan River. Presumably, this federation consolidated into the kingdom of Israel, and Judah split from that, during the dark age that followed the Bronze.

The term referred simply to Levantine nomads, of any religion or ethnicity. Mesopotamian, Hittite, Canaanite, and Egyptian sources describe them largely as bandits , mercenaries , and slaves. Certainly, there were some Habiru slaves in ancient Egypt, but native Egyptian kingdoms were not heavily slave-based.

Egypt is a country in North Africa, on the Mediterranean Sea, and is home to one of the oldest civilizations on earth. The name ‘Egypt’ comes from the Greek Aegyptos which was the Greek pronunciation of the ancient Egyptian name ‘Hwt-Ka-Ptah’ (“Mansion of the Spirit of Ptah”), originally the name of the city of s was the first capital of Egypt and a famous religious and trade.

The Ptolemaic court cultivated extravagant luxury in the Greek style in its magnificent and steadily expanding palace complex, which occupied as much as a third of the city by the early Roman period. Its grandeur was emphasized in the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus… Character of the city Alexandria has long occupied a special place in the popular imagination by virtue of its association with Alexander and Cleopatra.

Alexandria played an important role in preserving and transmitting Hellenic culture to the wider Mediterranean world and was a crucible of scholarship, piety, and ecclesiastical politics in early Christian history. Although it has been asserted that Alexandria declined as a result of its conquest by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century ce, such a statement is misleading.

As late as the 15th century, the city prospered as a transit point in the trade conducted between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean basin. Alexandria, EgyptDowntown Alexandria, Egypt. By the time French troops invaded Egypt in , Alexandria had been reduced to a town of some 10, inhabitants, significant mainly for its role in Ottoman maritime networks.

Flourishing in the 19th century as a major centre of the booming cotton industry, the modern city had come to bear little in common with the ancient metropolis. Throughout most of its history, Alexandria has thus remained a cosmopolitan town, belonging as much—or perhaps more—to the wider Mediterranean world as to its hinterland. With the significant increase in agricultural exports, the influx of native Egyptians to the city, and the formation and integration of the Egyptian state, Alexandria became tied to the Nile valley more closely than ever before.

As a result, it also became the locus of an emergent Egyptian national consciousness. Beginning in the mid th century, these underlying changes would be overshadowed for roughly a century by the rise to power of a Levantine business community. Foreign dominance was reinforced by the overlay of British colonialism beginning in and by the formation of a foreign-dominated municipality in

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The flag is a tricolor of three horizontal stripes—red, white, and black—with the national emblem in the center white stripe. The Arab Republic of Egypt Hymn. There are coins of 1, 5, 10, and 20 piasters and notes of 25 and 50 piasters and 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, and pounds. The metric system is the official standard, but various local units also are used:

Egypt is one of the cradles of civilization in the Middle East. Traces of early man were found in Egypt dating back as early as , years ago.

We arrange a private transfer from your hotel in Sharm by air-conditioned van to Sharm airport then fly to Cairo. Excursions and Tours in Egypt Over the years we’ve built our reputation to become Egypt’s favourite tour operator, just read our reviews and you’ll see why! So if you’re going on holiday to Aswan in Egypt and looking for some tours, staying in Alexandria and wondering what excursions are on offer or holidaying in Luxor, EgyptExcursions.

Cairo, Luxor, Aswan, Sharm el Sheikh and Hurghada Tours Over the years we’ve become well-known for our wide range of family-friendly tours and trips throughout all the Egyptian tourist resorts. We know better than anybody that the days you’ll remember most of your holiday to Egypt weren’t the lazy days you spent around the poolside although that does sound pretty good , rather it will be the amazing days you spent visiting the ancient Pyramids of Giza on our Cairo tours, the afternoon you spent scuba diving amongst the colour fish of the Red Sea, or the mornign spent zooming over the golden desert sands on a quad bike!

Book your tours in Egypt today and make the most of your time in Egypt. We spent the day touring round Karnak and Luxor temples seeing some of the most spectacular Ancient Egyptian monuments. We went for lunch at a local restaurant. I can definitely recommend this tour as you get to see and learn a great deal about the Ancient Egyptian civilisation.

Finally I was dropped back at my hotel. Dont, hesitate in booking this tour, you won’t regret it. Colin Gilbert from UK – 8th Feb

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This dramatic event, counted as Seleucus’ first regal year, was continued as the Seleucid Era, the first continuous count of time in world chronology, soon to inspire the similar Arsacid Era of Parthia. There is also the residual uncertainty about Hellenistic dating. Bickerman, for instance, positively asserted that Seleucus reconquered Babylon “in August of ” [Chronology of the Ancient World, Cornell University Press, , , , p.

Seleucus] was given a thousand men by Ptolemy and set out from Palestine to Babylonia” [Dividing the Spoils, Oxford, , p. While we may have more confidence in up-to-date scholarship, sometimes older analyses are later vindicated. As recounted above , Seleucus had to fend off two major efforts against him to recover Babylon for Antigonus Monophthalmos.

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Even from their ancient times, the Egyptians had a true preoccupation for their culture. A fact proved by the relics and artifacts found in the excavations made in the historical sites from Egypt. The royalty of the ancient Egypt had a cult for the gold jewelry and paid much attention to the clothes they were wearing, preferring the silk clothes. The life of the ancient Egyptians was coordinated by their gods and goddesses in who they have a very strong faith.

The ancient Egypt’s religious practices were related to the celestial bodies and their movements. The library of Alexandria was considered the world’s biggest library, having numerous manuscripts of the Egypt’s ancient literature. Today’s culture in Egypt is a cosmopolitan one, in Egypt living people that have different background of culture. Egypt’s culture is special and unique due to the fact that the Egyptians kept intact their old cultural heritage and in the same time, they created a new, modern cultural identity.

The Egyptians are very open and friendly with the visitors of their country and also very aware of their history and civilization.

Excursions, Tours & Trips in Egypt

See Article History Alternative Titles: Pharaonic Egypt thrived for some 3, years through a series of native dynasties that were interspersed with brief periods of foreign rule. After Alexander the Great conquered the region in bc, urban Egypt became an integral part of the Hellenistic world. Under the Greek Ptolemaic dynasty, an advanced literate society thrived in the city of Alexandria, but what is now Egypt was conquered by the Romans in 30 bc.

Pyramids dating from the 3rd millennium bc, Giza plateau near Cairo. Following the conquests, both urban and rural culture began to adopt elements of Arab culture, and an Arabic vernacular eventually replaced the Egyptian language as the common means of spoken discourse.

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Traces of early man were found in Egypt dating back as early as , years ago. Egypt and ancient Canaan to the north probably served as the bridges by which successive waves of humans: Ancient Egyptians used a phonetic-pictograph writing called hieroglyphics by the Ancient Greeks. This system evolved from portrayal of pictures of objects to using stylized representation of objects to represent sound combinations and compose words, to a phonetic alphabet much like our own.

Ancient Egypt boasted considerable achievements in art, medicine, astronomy and literature, and was the hub of civilization in much of the Near East and North Africa. The unique history of ancient Egypt and visible monuments to that history helped Egyptians to preserve a distinct national consciousness, and to remain a separate entity during the years of Arab, Mameluke and Ottoman conquest.

Excursions, Tours & Trips in Egypt

Alexandria played an important role in preserving and transmitting Hellenic culture to the wider Mediterranean world and was a crucible of scholarship, piety, and ecclesiastical politics in early Christian history. Although it has been asserted that Alexandria declined as a result of its conquest by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century ce, such a statement is misleading. As late as the 15th century, the city prospered as a transit point in the trade conducted between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean basin.

Alexandria, EgyptDowntown Alexandria, Egypt. By the time French troops invaded Egypt in , Alexandria had been reduced to a town of some 10, inhabitants, significant mainly for its role in Ottoman maritime networks. Flourishing in the 19th century as a major centre of the booming cotton industry, the modern city had come to bear little in common with the ancient metropolis.

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A multiple entry visa is also obtainable for 60 USD. There are other websites purporting to offer electronic visas, some of which reportedly charge double the official price, but this is the only official Government of Egypt portal for this service. Egyptian immigration officials occasionally have denied entry to travelers without explanation. Visas for gainful employment or study in Egypt must be obtained prior to travel.

The day visa requires the submission of a travel agency support letter which may be obtained from travel agents at the border; their fees for providing this service vary. The Government of Egypt opens this border on an infrequent and unpredictable basis. Embassy does not issue travel letters or provide any assistance in crossing to and from Gaza. Diplomatic and Official Passports: Diplomatic and Official passport holders, when entering Egypt for official business, are required to have visas before arrival in Egypt.

Diplomatic or Official passport holders must not use these passports to enter Egypt for unofficial travel, and should use their personal passports, following all appropriate regulations. Travelers attempting to enter Egypt with diplomatic or official passports who do not have visas will be required to remain, at their own expense, in the airport transit area until their immediate departure from Egypt can be arranged.

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Thought to date from the 2nd century AD, they offer an admirable example of the characteristic Alexandrian fusion of Egyptian and Greco-Roman styles. Discovered in thanks to a donkey falling into them they are laid out on several levels of sarcophagi and loculi shelf tomb chambers. A spiral staircase leads down into the ground to the main rotunda. To the right, you can enter the main burial chamber and also the Sepulchral Chapel with 91 loculi, each large enough to accommodate three or four mummies.

Alexandria: Alexandria, major city and urban muḥāfaẓah (governorate) in Egypt. Once among the greatest cities of the Mediterranean world and a centre of Hellenic scholarship and science, Alexandria was the capital of Egypt from its founding by Alexander .

Jeep safari to the most picturesque protectorate of Egypt Abu Galum – with its high mountains, narrow sinuous valleys, freshwater springs, costal sand Excursions and Tours in Egypt Over the years we’ve built our reputation to become Egypt’s favourite tour operator, just read our reviews and you’ll see why! So if you’re going on holiday to Aswan in Egypt and looking for some tours, staying in Alexandria and wondering what excursions are on offer or holidaying in Luxor, EgyptExcursions.

Cairo, Luxor, Aswan, Sharm el Sheikh and Hurghada Tours Over the years we’ve become well-known for our wide range of family-friendly tours and trips throughout all the Egyptian tourist resorts. We know better than anybody that the days you’ll remember most of your holiday to Egypt weren’t the lazy days you spent around the poolside although that does sound pretty good , rather it will be the amazing days you spent visiting the ancient Pyramids of Giza on our Cairo tours, the afternoon you spent scuba diving amongst the colour fish of the Red Sea, or the mornign spent zooming over the golden desert sands on a quad bike!

Book your tours in Egypt today and make the most of your time in Egypt.

Excursions, Tours & Trips in Egypt

It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as a-ku-pi-ti-yo. Prehistoric Egypt and Ancient Egypt There is evidence of rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC , a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain -grinding culture. Climate changes or overgrazing around BC began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara.

Egypt Excursions offers tours and excursions throughout Egypt including tours from Hurghada, Aswan, excursions in Alexandria, trips from Cairo and Luxor and Sharm el Sheikh.

He was nephew of the patriarch of that city, Theophilus. Cyril received a classical and theological education at Alexandria and was ordained by his uncle. He accompanied Theophilus to Constantinople in and was present at the Synod of the Oak that deposed John Chrysostom, whom he believed guilty of the charges against him. He succeeded his uncle Theophilus as patriarch of Alexandria on Theophilus’ death in , but only after a riot between Cyril’s supporters and the followers of his rival Timotheus.

Cyril at once began a series of attacks against the Novatians, whose churches he closed; the Jews, whom he drove from the city; and governor Orestes, with whom he disagreed about some of his actions. In Cyril became embroiled with Nestorius, patriarch of Constantinople, who was preaching that Mary was not the Mother of God since Christ was Divine and not human, and consequently she should not have the word theotokos God-bearer applied to her.

He persuaded Pope Celestine I to convoke a synod at Rome, which condemned Nestorius, and then did the same at his own synod in Alexandria. Celestine directed Cyril to depose Nestorius, and in , Cyril presided over the third General Council at Ephesus, attended by some two hundred bishops, which condemned all the tenets of Nestorius and his followers before the arrival of Archbishop John of Antioch and forty-two followers who believed Nestorius was innocent.

When they found what had been done, they held a council of their own and deposed Cyril. Emperor Theodosius II arrested both Cyril and Nestorius but released Cyril on the arrival of Papal Legates who confirmed the council’s actions against Nestorius and declared Cyril innocent of all charges.

Archaeologists make stunning underwater discovery near the port of Alexandria in Egypt


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