Bountiful and Nahom in the Arabian Peninsula While faith will always be required in our mortal journey, for those interested in moving forward on faith’s rocky path, there are occasional dazzling lights along the way to help us see our way around or over the obstacles we face. Some of the brightest lights giving intellectual support to the Book of Mormon come from the Old World, particularly the Arabian Peninsula, where dramatic finds have added new levels of credibility to the account in First Nephi. Glaring weaknesses have suddenly become strengths, including the impossibility of finding a “continually running” river 1 Nephi 2: Some of the most important resources on this topic were just published in I especially recommend Warren P. Aston, Lehi and Sariah in Arabia:
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A General History In , Abdul-Aziz ibn Sa’ud-the founder and first King of Saudi Arabia -took control of the Hijaz the Western Province of Saudi Arabia , ending a long series of battles to consolidate and unite a vast but fragmented territory. Abdul-Aziz had his eyes on implementing a nation building process which would fit the needs and aspirations of the people while growing alongside their assessment of what would best serve the nation and its citizens. National unity was realized because Abdul-Aziz applied the doctrine of Islam to public policy, justice, and all other fields of life.
He succeeded not only in unifying the country, but also in proving the credibility of the Islamic solution and demonstrating its validity for his time and all times.
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For decades, the now-stale story of our evolution and migration across the planet was thought to begin in Africa about , years ago with the emergence of archaic H. The fossil from Israel known as Misliya-1 pushed back the presence of modern H. Satellite imagery and other methods, for example, have revealed that Arabia was once home to 10, lakes, some filled by monsoonal rains and only seasonal, but many others existing year-round.
Although evidence of the earliest exodus has been found in Israel, suggesting H. Both of these proposed routes, however, suggest that the early humans stayed close to coastlines. Human fossils found at sites in Israel such as Misliya, Skhul and Qafzeh have suggested a northern route of exodus for the earliest human explorers, although some researchers argue a southern route was also possible.
A deformity visible on one side appears to be an abnormal bony growth called an enthesophyte, which typically results from trauma or repeated stress to the bone at the location. The bone also appears to show signs of intense manual activity. Direct dating of the finger bone suggests it is at least 85, years old, making it one of the oldest H. A directly dated fossil is pretty much what it sounds like: Researchers are able to date the fossil itself, in this case through radiometric dating, rather than estimate a date based either on artifacts found with it or on the age of sediment and other material immediately above or below it.
In the case of AW-1, in addition to directly dating the finger bone through a technique called uranium series dating , the team confirmed its age by also dating material around it, including hippopotamus remains and sediments, using a variety of methods as a cross-check. Based on paleoclimate research, the area around Al Wusta, in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula, would have been semi-arid grassland populated by mainly African animals — more than vertebrate fossils were found in the vicinity.
Definitions[ edit ] Some definitions or uses of the term Wahhabi Islam include: King Salman bin Abdul Aziz , the King of the Saudi Arabia  “a misguided creed that fosters intolerance, promotes simplistic theology, and restricts Islam’s capacity for adaption to diverse and shifting circumstances” David Commins, paraphrasing opponents’ definition  “a conservative reform movement Starting out as a theological reform movement, it had “the goal of calling da’wa people to restore the ‘real’ meaning of tawhid oneness of God or monotheism and to disregard and deconstruct ‘traditional’ disciplines and practices that evolved in Islamic history such as theology and jurisprudence and the traditions of visiting tombs and shrines of venerated individuals.
The term is “most frequently used in countries where Salafis are a small minority” of the Muslim community but “have made recent inroads” in “converting” the local population to Salafism. Quintan Wiktorowicz  a blanket term used inaccurately to refer to “any Islamic movement that has an apparent tendency toward misogyny, militantism, extremism, or strict and literal interpretation of the Quran and hadith” Natana J.
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Muslim] who was slain in battle was sure to go to Paradise. He said, also, that the man who was the first to board a vessel had one slave over and above his share, and that when they sprang to the deck of an enemy’s ship, every sailor held a dagger in each hand and a third in his mouth; which usually struck such terror into the foe that they cried out for quarter at once. It is a hard fight.
It’s extremely difficult, day after day, when you face people and say, “If Sharia law is taken to its logic this is what things are going to look like” and you come across people who say, “You got it all wrong. I wasn’t used to arguing with vice presidents. People who are viewed as “insulting” Islam are regularly threatened with violence, including death. This happens inside and outside Islamic countries, occurring in the form of legal sanctions in the former, with efforts to institutionalize such prohibitions everywhere, so that Islam could not be criticized even, for instance, in the United States.
Yet most of the genuine insults to Islam these days come from Muslims themselves. If anyone’s purpose was to discredit Islam by vicious actions done in its name, there is now abundant evidence that this is the program of many Muslims, including several internationally recognized Islamic states. In April , the radical Islamic group in Nigeria, Boko Haram “Education is forbidden” kidnapped girls out of a government school in the north of the country.
The leader of the group, Abubakar Shekau, subsequently asserted, in a videotaped message, that the girls were now slaves and would be sold as slaves. This must be cold comfort for the anti-American ideologues who want to convey the impression that slavery was invented in America and was a unique evil imposed by white people on Africans, and that one of the worst and most unforgivable things about slavery was sexual expoitation. Now Abubakar Shekau openly proclaims slavery and sexual slavery part of the program of Islamic revival, and he is correct in terms of traditional Islamic law, where slaves are indeed the sexual property of their owners.
Although Michelle Obama joined a Twitter campaign to “free our girls,” the girls mostly have not been freed, but have vanished into forced conversion, forced marriages, and slavery.
Its inclusion expresses the view that the country is the personal possession of the royal family. In the case of the Al Saud , this is the father of the dynasty’s 18th-century founder, Muhammad bin Saud. Arabia underwent an extreme environmental fluctuation in the Quaternary that lead to profound evolutionary and demographic changes.
Arabia has a rich Lower Paleolithic record, and the quantity of Oldwan-like sites in the region indicate a significant role that Arabia had played in the early hominin colonization of Eurasia. In November hunting scenes showing images of most likely domesticated dogs, resembling the Canaan dog , wearing leashes were discovered in Shuwaymis, a hilly region of northwestern Saudi Arabia.
These rock engravings date back more than years, making them the earliest depictions of dogs in the world.
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The national flag bears in white on a green field the inscription, in Arabic, “There is no god but Allah , and Mohammad is the messenger of Allah. The National Anthem is a short instrumental selection. The Saudi riyal sr is divided into 20 qursh piasters , in turn divided into 5 halalah. There are coins of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and halalah and notes of 1, 5, 10, 50, , and riyals. The metric system has been officially adopted. Although Saudi Arabia is known to be the third-largest country in Asia, after China and India , its precise area is difficult to specify because several of its borders are incompletely demarcated.
According to the United Nations UN , the nation has an area of 1, , sq km , sq mi ; it extends 2, km 1, mi ese—wnw and 1, km mi nne—ssw. Comparatively, the area occupied by Saudi Arabia is slightly less than one-fourth the size of the United States. Saudi Arabia is bounded on the n by Jordan and Iraq ; on the ne by Kuwait ; on the e by the Persian Gulf , Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates UAE ; on the se by Oman ; on the s and sw by Yemen ; and on the w by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, with a total estimated land boundary length of 4, km 2, mi and a coastline of 2, km 1, mi.
An agreement was reached in whereby the neutral zone separating Saudi Arabia from Kuwait was divided administratively between the two countries; however, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia continue to debate the maritime boundary with Iran. A dispute between Saudi Arabia and the newly formed UAE over control of the Buraymi oasis was settled in , when they reached an accord fixing their common border; however, the details of this treaty had not been made public by late Saudi Arabia’s capital city, Riyadh, is located in the east-central part of the country.
East of the Hijaz, the slope is more gentle, and the mountains give way to the central uplands Najd , a large plateau ranging in elevation from about 1, m 5, ft in the west to about m 2, ft in the east. This, in turn, gives way to the low-lying Gulf region.
Mysterious Manmade Stone Structures Detected in the Remote Landscape of Saudi Arabia
The earliest are written in variants of epigraphic south Arabian musnad script, including the 8th century BCE Hasaean inscriptions of eastern Saudi Arabia, the 6th century BCE Lihyanite texts of southeastern Saudi Arabia and the Thamudic texts found throughout the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai not in reality connected with Thamud. Their early inscriptions were in Aramaic , but gradually switched to Arabic, and since they had writing, it was they who made the first inscriptions in Arabic.
The Nabataean alphabet was adopted by Arabs to the south, and evolved into modern Arabic script around the 4th century.
Its inclusion expresses the view that the country is the personal possession of the royal family. In the case of the Al Saud , this is the father of the dynasty’s 18th-century founder, Muhammad bin Saud. History of Saudi Arabia There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about , years ago. The history before the foundation of Saudi Arabia divided into two phases: Al-Magar Al-Magar is prehistoric civilisation that was founded in the center of the Arabian Peninsula , particularly in Najd.
Al-Magar is where the first domestication of animals occurred, particularly the horse, during the Neolithic period. It is one of the oldest churches in the world. Thamud Thamud is the name of an ancient civilization in the Hejaz known from the 1st millennium BC to near the time of Muhammad. More than 9, Thamudic inscriptions were recorded in south-west Saudi Arabia.
Their loosely controlled trading network, which centered on strings of oases that they controlled, where agriculture was intensively practiced in limited areas, and on the routes that linked them, had no securely defined boundaries in the surrounding desert. Trajan conquered the Nabataean kingdom , annexing it to the Roman Empire , where their individual culture, easily identified by their characteristic finely potted painted ceramics, was adopted into the larger Greco-Roman culture.
They were later converted to Christianity.
Rock art documents the earliest evidence for dogs on the Arabian Peninsula. Abstract The function of prehistoric dogs in hunting is not readily visible in the archaeological record; interpretations are thus heavily reliant on ethnographic data and remain controversial. Here we document the earliest evidence for dogs on the Arabian Peninsula from rock art at the sites of Shuwaymis and Jubbah, in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Hunting scenes depicted in the rock art illustrate dog-assisted hunting strategies from the 7th and possibly the 8th millennium BC, predating the spread of pastoralism.
There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about , years ago. It is now believed that the first modern humans to spread east across Asia left Africa about 75, years ago across the Bab-el-Mandeb connecting Horn of Africa and Arabia. The Arabian peninsula is regarded as a central figure in our understanding of hominin evolution and dispersals.
Radio and television services do not accept advertising. Normal business hours are from 7: Government offices are open from 7 am to 2 pm, Saturday through Wednesday. Banks are open from 8 to Private-sector business hours are usually 8 am to Most businesses are closed on Friday. Other exports include manufactured polymers 3. The bulk of exports went to Japan Imports included machinery and transport equipment, food, and chemicals and mainly came from France The gap in the balance of payments is largely due to massive imports in services and person transfers, and somewhat to outflowing capital transfers.
The central bank’s numbers were based on an exchange rate of qr3.
Rock art: Life-sized Sculptures of Dromedaries Found in Saudi Arabia
Excerpt This paper examines three aspects of the identification of Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia. First, the paper questions the credibility of the claims. Second, the paper disputes the false assumptions by the proponents of Jebel al-Lawz.
Waman llâhu famâ lahu min hâdin. And whom God leads astray, there is for him no right guide. ‘al-Qur’ân, Sûrah 39, Verse Islâm,, is the religion founded by the Prophet word is sometimes said to mean “peace,” but it is salâm,, that is the word for peace. Islâm means “submission, resignation,” i.e. to the will of God.. Both are from the same root, slm,, “to.
They are thought to date back to the first centuries BC or AD. The find sheds new light on the evolution of rock art in the Arabian Peninsula and is the subject of an article published in Antiquity February The sculptures, some incomplete, were executed on three rocky spurs there. Though natural erosion has partly destroyed some of the works, as well as any traces of tools used in their creation, the researchers were able to identify a dozen or so reliefs of varying depths representing camelids and equids.
The life-sized sculpted animals are depicted without harnessing in a natural setting. One scene in particular is unprecedented: Camels feeding in Saudi Arabia. CC0 Some of the works are thus thematically very distinct from the representations often found in this region. In addition, certain Camel Site sculptures on upper rock faces demonstrate indisputable technical skills.
Camel Site can now be considered a major showcase of Saudi rock art in a region especially propitious for archaeological discovery. This art revealed that there were once a host of animals in the region that were previously unknown of including aurochs, wild camels, African wild ass and kudu, according to a New Scientist article. These are far from the only examples of rock art in the region, with over other sites of rock art being identified.
Though the sculptures at Camel Site is hard to date, comparison with a relief at Petra Jordan leads the researchers to believe the sculptures were completed in the first centuries BC or AD.
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